The sum of a player's on-base percentage (OBP) and their slugging average (SLG). This is a quick and easy statistic for understanding a player's offensive productivity.
OPS is more closely correlated to run scoring than batting average, on-base percentage, or slugging average alone, which is why many baseball fans prefer this statistic to compare players' offensive ability.
Understand that OPS has its limitations, such as the assumption that OBP and SLG are equal. For example, a player with a .340 OBP and a .340 SLG is offensively different than a player with a .440 OBP and a .240 SLG, despite each sets adding up to an OPS of .680.
"Stress" is a way of characterizing how much of a pitcher's workload has been compressed into high pitch count outings. The higher the stress ratings over the course of a pitcher's career, the higher likelihood of arm injuries.
Stress = Pitcher Abuse Points(PAP)/# of Pitches
PAP = (# of Pitches -100)^3
According to Keith Woolner, starting pitchers who regularly work deeper into games decline in performance, as a group, after throwing a high number of pitches. In Baseball Prospectus 2001, he compared three weeks before and after pitchers' high-pitch outings and found that pitchers threw fewer innings per start, struck out fewer batters, and allowed more hits and walks in the subsequent starts.
Batting average is a measure of a hitter's performance, and is calculated by dividing a player's hits by their total at-bats, over a period of time. Batting averages can range from .000 (NO hits in all at-bats) and 1.000 (a hit in EVERY at-bat). In the absence of walks, reaching a base on errors, or being hit by a pitch, a hitter with a .300 batting average gets a hit 30% of the time they come to the plate. Take any batting average (.350, .105, .446) and multiply it by 100 to get the statistic as a percentage (35%, 10.5%, 44.6%).
The MLB average batting average for the 2019 season was .252, and the batting average leader of the 2019 season was Tim Anderson of the Chicago White Sox; .335 in 498 at-bats (AB).
Last week, we discussed what a “Hit” was. It is crucial to understand this before we dive into these conditions, as each condition is a type of hit.
A single (1B) or base hit occurs when the batter hits the ball into play and reaches 1st base safely. In order for a batter to be credited with a double (2B), the batter (now a "baserunner") must reach 1st base safely and then 2nd base safely. In order for a batter to be credited with a triple (3B) (you guessed it) they must reach 3rd base safely after touching 1st base and 2nd base.
A home run (HR) exists in two conditions:
- The batter hits the ball over the outfield wall in "fair territory"(area in-between the two foul poles in left and right field).
- The batter hits the ball into play and the runner advances all the way to home plate safely.
It is important to note that the baserunner must touch every base they're attempting to reach while the ball is in play. If they fail to do so, they must go back to that base (in reverse order), touch it, then continue to advance. If a defensive player in possession of the ball beats the runner there, the runner will be called out.
The baserunner will not be credited with any of these conditions if they reached any of these bases on an error or fielder's choice. If the baserunner attempts to reach 2nd, 3rd, or home plate after touching 1st base, but is called out at any of those bases by an umpire, the baserunner will still be credited with a hit in the official scorebook.
In baseball, a "hit" is simply a condition in which the batter hits the ball into play and (at least) reaches 1st base safely.
"Safely" means the batter reached a base without being tagged with the ball first or beat to the base by a defensive player in possession of the ball, or reached the base because the ball wasn't caught before it touched the ground. In order to be ruled as a hit, the batter CANNOT reach the base on an error or a fielder's choice.
The Yankees weren’t able to make a splash at the Trade Deadline. With all of their perceived deficiencies, where should they turn next?